Black holes

From Anthroposophy

Black holes are a theoretical and mathematical concept conceived by Mineral science based on a view of the cosmos that only considers physical matter, in order to explain a set of astronomical observations. A black hole is thought of as a concept of a physical singularity in material timespace that explains mathematically why light cannot escape it, due to enormous and magnitudes of mass and energy are condensed so the laws of physics and time break down. The concept however comes with unsolved philosophical questions, eg on how to explain what happens to matter in this physical singularity, or the reality of the absurd magnitudes of mass and energy never seen in any experienced reality.

Spiritual science suggests that the observations have to be viewed in a framework of the etheric Formative forces, see Mathematics of the etheric, and the concept of counterspace which is characterized by such a genuine non-physical singularity mathematically (re Thomas in references below). Furthermore the physical interpretation of light has to be put in perspective of the Spectrum of elements and ethers, to reframe the interpretation of astronomical observations. See also Worldview and Top five problems with current science.

Illustrations


Lecture coverage and references


Wikipedia states

A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing - no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light - can escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.

The boundary of the region from which no escape is possible is called the event horizon. Although the event horizon has an enormous effect on the fate and circumstances of an object crossing it, according to general relativity it has no locally detectable features. In many ways, a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light.

Moreover, quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass. This temperature is on the order of billionths of a kelvin for black holes of stellar mass, making it essentially impossible to observe directly.

Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace. The first modern solution of general relativity that would characterize a black hole was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, although its interpretation as a region of space from which nothing can escape was first published by David Finkelstein in 1958. Black holes were long considered a mathematical curiosity; it was not until the 1960s that theoretical work showed they were a generic prediction of general relativity. The discovery of neutron stars by Jocelyn Bell Burnell in 1967 sparked interest in gravitationally collapsed compact objects as a possible astrophysical reality.

Black holes of stellar mass are expected to form when very massive stars collapse at the end of their life cycle. After a black hole has formed, it can continue to grow by absorbing mass from its surroundings. By absorbing other stars and merging with other black holes, supermassive black holes of millions of solar masses (M) may form. There is consensus that supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most galaxies.

The presence of a black hole can be inferred through its interaction with other matter and with electromagnetic radiation such as visible light. Matter that falls onto a black hole can form an external accretion disk heated by friction, forming quasars, some of the brightest objects in the universe. Stars passing too close to a supermassive black hole can be shred into streamers that shine very brightly before being "swallowed." If there are other stars orbiting a black hole, their orbits can be used to determine the black hole's mass and location. Such observations can be used to exclude possible alternatives such as neutron stars. In this way, astronomers have identified numerous stellar black hole candidates in binary systems, and established that the radio source known as Sagittarius A*, at the core of the Milky Way galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole of about 4.3 million solar masses.

On 11 February 2016, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo collaboration announced the first direct detection of gravitational waves, which also represented the first observation of a black hole merger. As of December 2018, eleven gravitational wave events have been observed that originated from ten merging black holes (along with one binary neutron star merger).

On 10 April 2019, the first direct image of a black hole and its vicinity was published, following observations made by the Event Horizon Telescope in 2017 of the supermassive black hole in Messier 87's galactic centre.

and

A supermassive black hole (SMBH or sometimes SBH) is the largest type of black hole, with mass on the order of millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun (M). Black holes are a class of astronomical objects that have undergone gravitational collapse, leaving behind spheroidal regions of space from which nothing can escape, not even light.

Discussion

Interpretation of light and matter

In a spiritual scientific view as explained by the various planetary stages of evolution, see Overview of solar system evolution, the gradual unfoldment of the Spectrum of elements and ethers becomes clear. Light arose out during the Old Sun stage. Therefore, the fact that there is no light coming from a source we can perceive due to its impact does not have to be correlated at all to the existance of physical mineral matter as exists on Earth. See again: Top five problems with current science.

Supermassive black holes

Supermassive black holes have been identified to be at the center of our Milky Way galaxy (Sagittarius A) as well as other galaxies such as M31.

Wachsmuth, in 'The evolution of mankind' already points out the link with the ancient meaning of the zodiac sign Sagittarius based on the ancient clairvoyance, when Man could still perceive spiritual beings where today star patterns are observed.

Modern instruments show that the greatest concentration of material processes occurs in the direction of Sagittarius. From this part of the heavens comes the most intensive bombardement of rays. But this is only the physical aspect of this peculiar nature of this region. It is astounding that ancient Man, out of his senstive faculties and picture-consciousness, should have been able to designate this region by such an apt image as the archer shouting the poisoned arrow, at the same time showing the archer as centaur, half man and half animal.

He continues:

.. another of the primeval experiences was the polarity between Sagittarius with its darkness and clinging to matter, its poisoned arrow and its centaur, and the ligher opposite side of Gemini.

See also 1917-11-25-GA178

Furthermore several spurces speak of the center of our milky way as the main source of spiritual energy, e.g.

Sri Yukteswar describes the Sun's .. relative position to the 'grand center'.

.. The sun also has another motion by which it revolves around a grand center, the seat of Brahma, the creative power.

More on: Sun and Philolaus's central fire on Threefold Sun

Related pages

References and further reading

  • Nick Thomas: 'Space and counterspace: a new science of gravity, time and light' (2008)