Wotan Impulse

From Anthroposophy

The Wotan Impulse refers to the first entry of intellectualism in the European culture of the Northern stream, which had been waiting and preparing for the fifth cultural age of the consciousness soul and the fructification by the Christ impulse.

The Wotan Impulse added the Mercury mysteries to the Sun and Moon mysteries of the Druidic and Trotten Mysteries. The impulse was initiated from the Colchis Mysteries near the Black Sea and spread from the East moving and West, colonizing as the Wotan-Mercury influence was carried westward. (1923-09-10-GA228)

It can be deduced, though Rudolf Steiner does not put it like this literally, that this impulse from the Colchis Mysteries went both to the Northern stream as to Greece, part of the Southern stream, and that this happened in the fourth cultural age of the consciousness soul. See Schema FMC00.437 and more on: Colchis Mysteries#.5B1.5D - The addition of the intellectual component into the Mysteries

Positioning the influences of Wotan-Buddha

The workings of an important high spiritual being such as the Bodhisattvas of the White Lodge are not always easy to clearly map to historical records across cultures and the different cultural ages and even epochs. This is the case for the beings known as Christian Rosenkreutz, Zarathustra or Master Jesus, and also for the being known as Wotan and/or Buddha.

However, the manifold indications in lectures by Rudolf Steiner can be grouped and assembled, whereby a different picture arises.

Whereas

  • the Wotan impulse in the Northern could logically be placed around start of the age of the intellectual soul (1908-08-14-GA105), because the mission of Wotan-Buddha was to bring the sentient soul developed in the third cultural age into the fourth age and give the impulse of the intellectual soul (GA139)
  • the Wotan-Buddha individuality continued to teach at the Colchis Mysteries, bringing the teachings of Buddhism adapted for the Northern stream and later permeated by impulses of Christianity (1912-05-29-GA155),
  • and even worked into the 7-8th century AD on the initiation of the Individuality of Francis of Assisi in his previous incarnation.

Hence the above descriptions fit into the workings of the Bodhisattva and Buddha known as Wotan-Buddha in the Northern stream over a period between approx. -800 BC and +800 AD, whereby the Wotan Impulse in the West preceeded the Buddha Impulse in the East (part of the Southern stream).

Other major workings of this being were:

  • the doctrine of Buddhism in Asia in the 6th century BC.
  • at the birth of the Jesus; and preparation of Jesus at the times of the Essenes (1910-09-07-GA123)
  • the Mystery of Mars at the end of the 16th century AD (see Colchis Mysteries#1912-12-18-GA130)


Last, see also:

Aspects

  • Individuality and name
    • the being of Wotan is the same as the Individuality incarnated as Gautama Buddha: "the northern god Wotan means the same as Buddha." (1905-12-10-GA90B). Also "Wotan <-> Wodha = Bodha = Buddha ( Asia W, the sound V, becomes B) is linked to the great Atlantean initiate Wod-Wodha-Odin" (1905-11-05-GA093A)
    • the initiate Sig, who founded the Trotten Mysteries (1909-05-06-GA057), had a fellowship of twelve great Initiates and left his own Individuality which was exchanged for the Individuality of Odin or Wotan, who already lived in the Atlantean epoch as a great adept. (1905-03-22-GA90B). This process is comparable with what happened with Jesus at the Baptism. This means Wotan was working to the different incarnations of all that is related to Sig and Siegfried. In other words the influence of Wotan was working through Sig, leading the Northern stream in the preparatory ages upto the fourth and fifth cultural age.
    • Buddha-Wotan had a development path far ahead of mainstream mankind, this included being part of the development on Venus before descending to Earth again (GA137)
  • timing
    • At the same time as the period of the Jewish prophets in the centuries before Christ [see eg The being of Elijah], we find here indications of a great, primeval, Atlantean initiate. Wod-Wodha-Odin. (1905-11-05-GA093A). The individuality known as Wotan is the same who appeared later as the Buddha(1908-08-14-GA105)
      • note: Gautama Buddha is placed by contemporary history between approx 600 and 400 BC. Rudolf Steiner states he was born in 550BC and became Buddha and rose the spirit world at age 29 (1911-11-18-GA130)
    • See Colchis Mysteries which state "On the shores of the Black Sea there existed an occult school which lasted far into the Christian era. They were instructed in the doctrines and principles which had proceeded from Buddhism, but these were permeated by the impulses which came into the world through Christianity".
  • impulse
    • like "a modernised Atlantis, in a new form, an atavism, a throwback into the Atlantean Age" both in the North (at the same time as the epoch of the Jewish Prophets, in the centuries before Christ ), as in Asia ("Buddhism appears as a throwback into the Atlantean Age." .. in Tibet, there we have a modern, monumental expression of Atlantean culture.") (1905-11-05-GA093A)
    • Wotan is described as the bringer of the Runes, the Runic art of writing (1923-09-10-GA228)
      • Runes were a symbolic and phonetic written language and predecessor of current alphabets, used to write various Germanic languages before adoption of the Latin alphabet. In addition to being a writing system, runes served purposes of magic.
        • In the 20th century there was a small revival of rune magic in Germany mainly through three individuals (von List, Kummer, Spiesberger - see Further reading section below). Franz Bardon (an Individuality said to be teacher of initiation and magic for millenia) was in contact with Kummer (as he explored what was available and disclosed about this ancient and veiled system) as part of his surveys into 20th century magical practices.

Inspirational quotes

1923-09-10-GA228

Then into all this there spread from the East, to begin with from a Mystery in the region of the Black Sea, what is now contained as an insoluble riddle for the ordinary consciousness in the Norse Mythology, associated with the name of Wotan. ... The Mystery from which this Wotan culture proceeded was a Mercury Mystery, a Mystery that added to the impulses of Sun and Moon the impulse of Mercury. From thence they now spread, colonizing, towards the West. Wotan-Mercury carried his influence westward.

Here at the same time we have thrown light upon the fact that Wotan is described as the bringer of the Runes, the Runic art of writing. He was the bringer of what Man drew forth from himself in the first primitive way of intellectuality as an art of deciphering the universe. This is the very first entry of intellectualism, the Wotan impulse. Thus one might say that the Mercury, the Wotan-nature, was now added to the Sun-and Moon-natures.

Wherever this Wotan impulse worked itself out fully, everything that was present from earlier experiences was influenced by it. It all received a certain impulse from this Wotan element.

Illustrations

Schema FMC00.437 provides a simple overview positioning key Mysteries of the Northern stream, with - in red - a few of the important Mystery Centers as described by Rudolf Steiner (see quotes and references on the right). The dotted line represents the Southern stream in the fourth cultural age of the current Postatlantean epoch. The arrows represent the impulse for the age of the intellectual soul coming from the Colchis Mysteries (to both south and north).

FMC00.437.jpg

Schema FMC00.430 is a drawing made by Rudolf Steiner, recorded by Mathilde Scholl in a private conversation where she asked Rudolf Steiner how the aftereffects of an important Individuality such as the apostle Paul were related to the effects of the Earth's inner layer called the 'shatterer'. See also Schema FMC00.004 on Earth's inner layers. More comments under the 1905-08-13-GA091 and Note [2] in the Discussion area. A specific example of what is depicted here is the adepts of the White Lodge known as Sig and the Individuality of Wotan-Buddha, also working in a later incarnation as Siegfried. See 1904-10-21-GA092 and 1905-03-22-GA90B (see also longer extracts on German mythology).

FMC00.430.jpg

Lecture coverage and references

1904-10-21-GA092

Wotan was an initiate of the northern peoples. He is none other than the bearer of the elements of Atlantean culture into these parts. Everywhere in these northern regions the Druid initiation was still practised.

I have already said that one of its founders, one can say its chief founder, was named Sieg.

And in these northern parts something happened rather like what happened later in Palestine at the Foundation of Christianity. Sieg renounced his body and placed it at the disposal of a higher individuality. Hence later the transformed Sieg was named Odin.

  • Odin is the highest initiate of the northern Mysteries. He is the bearer of the spiritual culture of that time.
  • Sieg was the Chela of the north who placed his body at the disposal of the higher, more spiritual Odin. He himself lived later as an initiate Master. Sieg is a quite special case. He is not able to introduce a movement as Master Jesus did after the foundation of Christianity. Sieg had to lead this northern culture to its downfall. He is called upon to guide the northern peoples until the fifth cultural age of the fifth root-race reached them from the south. The ancient Chela Sieg is the one who had to lead the northern peoples into tragedy.

...

I must draw attention to one feature which we always find in such a situation in human evolution. Before a new phase takes root the earlier phases of evolution have to undergo a brief repetition. This repetition is plainly to be seen in the north. We are shown how all that has been experienced here in the north since the time of Lemuria and Atlantis has to be overcome before these northern nations will become mature, will really develop up to the level of the Christianised fifth cultural age. He in whom all that lives is the initiate Siegfried.

...

Thus you have four levels which come one after another.

  • First you have Wotan, who comes over from Atlantean times; then Odin.
  • Wotan corresponds with what develops during the second cultural age of the fifth root-race.
  • The last before Siegfried is Balder, the sun-hero. He corresponds with what develops in the Chaldean-Babylonian-Assyrian epoch. But whereas what developed in the south is an ascending, a progressive culture, here in the north we find a mood of suspense, of expectancy, of waiting for something to happen
  • Then we come down from god to Man; and while the southern cultural age developed further, Siegfried became the initiator of this culture of suspense. It is steeped in tragedy. Because this northern culture is coming to an end you have the tragic deaths of Baldur, of Siegfried.
1905-03-22-GA90B

... there was this fellowship of twelve great Initiates. The thirteenth was their leader, but at that stage he was not yet more advanced as the other twelve. This initiate was called Sige or Sig. At a certain age, he was able to leave his own Individuality to a higher Individuality, so to take into himself a higher Individuality. This is one of the highest mysteries, it also happens with Christ descending into Jesus at the Baptism. The Individuality of Sig was exchanged for the Individuality of Odin or Wotan, who already lived in the Atlantean epoch as a great adept.

1905-11-05-GA093A

Now here in the North, everything that has remained from earlier times took on a more established form. At the same time as the epoch of the Jewish Prophets, in the centuries before Christ, we find here indications of a great, primeval, Atlantean initiate. Wod-Wodha-Odin. This is a modernised Atlantis, in a new form, an atavism, a throwback into the Atlantean Age.

.

And this happens everywhere, over in Asia also. In Asia W, the sound V, becomes B, Wodha = Bodha = Buddha. Buddhism appears as a throwback into the Atlantean Age. This is why we find Buddhism most widespread with what has remained over from the Atlanteans in the Mongolian peoples. And where the very pillars of its greatness make their appearance in Tibet, there we have a modern, monumental expression of Atlantean culture.

see more: Druidic and Trotten mysteries#1905-11-05-GA093A

1908-08-14-GA105

[Ragnarok]

Consciousness between death and rebirth darkened more and more, though it was never lost completely; it was never extinguished, though it grew dim. The more affection man developed for the sensible physical world, the more he had to content himself with the vision of lower beings, and the less communion could higher beings have with him. All the beings who were his good companions during the Atlantean epoch, when he was still clairvoyant, disappeared, especially in the period between death and rebirth, and gradually the connecting link between man and those ancient Gods was lost.

We know that remnants of ancient clairvoyance endured up to the later ages of European culture; that there were some people who in certain states of consciousness could still rise to the vision of the Gods. Such people also enjoyed a more vivid communion with the Gods after death; they had a more intimate life with them. Such a communion was good not only for men but also for the Gods, for man takes up with him the love he has won in the physical world; the Gods received back from him as a sacrificial offering that which as love he had acquired in the physical world. Men, however, grew ever less and less fitted for this communion with the Gods, because their love for the physical world continually increased. The souls of those dwelling in the districts from which the Germanic peoples have since sprung gradually participated less and less in the vision of the Gods, so that they had little fellowship with them between death and rebirth. Through this an idea developed that the Gods were losing their connection with the earth which they had themselves created, and losing also their rulership over it.

This feeling gave rise to the conception of the “Twilight of the Gods.”This is the actual foundation of the drama. It was felt that the Gods had to withdraw from the world they had themselves created. The Gods who, even as late as the Atlantean epoch, had descended into the bodies of the most advanced human beings and had taught them important secrets in the Mysteries were obliged gradually to withdraw, and they could only come in touch with the physical world by using the more advanced human beings as their instruments or vehicles.

[Sig]

This actually happened in the Atlantean epoch; and those who were initiated into the ancient Druidic Mysteries knew, that an ancient Atlantean individuality known as Sig appeared for long after the Atlantean catastrophe in many different ways in European bodies.

All such names as Siegfried and Sigurd preserve exoterically the remembrance of the repeated appearances of this Individuality who was finally only perceptible to those who had been initiated into the Mysteries. He united himself with high Initiates, and it became more and more necessary, the nearer we approach our age, for him to seek out those who had already gone through many, incarnations in which they had purified themselves.

Now, in order that we may understand our age, it is necessary to touch the fringe of a great mystery which throws light on much that had taken place in our time.

Let us turn once more to the middle of the Atlantean epoch, when the physical world was first disclosed to man. A sort of parting of the ways then took place for the Gods — those who had been the ancient companions of men in higher realms. Coming from spiritual heights man had plunged deeper and deeper into the physical world.

...

This point (which lies in the middle of the Atlantean epoch) was an important parting of the ways for certain spiritual beings. They had then to decide whether they would sink into a kind of abyss from which they would rise again later all the stronger (for through their fall they would have developed greater powers) or whether they would take the direct way.

Certain spiritual beings, those who had formerly been the companions of Man, took the direct way; they decided never again to enter human bodies, but to remain in the realms of the spirit. The subsequent development of humanity passed them by with hardly a trace.

There were, on the other hand, other divine beings, a number of whom have been preserved in the memory of the people of Europe and elsewhere under such names as Zeus, Wotan, etc.; they decided, for the salvation of humanity, to descend again and again into human bodies, that they might work for humanity. It was not possible for all of them to descend to the same extent, for through Man having entered so deeply into the physical world human bodies became ever less suitable instruments for divine beings.

Only those men who had purified their bodies in a certain way, who throughout the course of many incarnations had developed such noble etheric and physical bodies that they had completely banished from their souls certain connections with the physical world, who, through their whole disposition, had lived less in that which was of the earth than in that which was not of the Earth — only such men were still able to receive into themselves the souls of high spiritual beings as they would receive their own soul. So it happened that those into whom spiritual beings had entered could not, as it were, descend far enough into physical existence; they therefore held a very unique position in the world.

[Wotan]

Let us picture some such being, one who for many incarnations had developed the forces of his body, had won an inner victory over it so that he lived more in the spiritual than in the physical world, and was, on this account, fitted to be the vehicle of a higher being.

Was it possible for such a being to be fully understood by those who had descended completely into physical existence, who had developed a love for the physical world and strove to work on this physical plane? Would he not be better understood by those who had preserved the character of an earlier epoch, who were stragglers from an earlier epoch?

He could, in truth, be much better understood by these stragglers from the Atlantean epoch.

The Mongolian peoples have not descended so deeply, nor have they entangled themselves so much in the physical plane nor done so much towards its conquest as the people of Europe. We see that external physical civilization is accomplished by western nations rather than by the stragglers from Atlantean civilization who had remained stationary, and were therefore not at home in a world of Postatlantean development, because they had retained certain qualities and had then degenerated.

It is often pointed out that the Japanese are going through a significant development today through the qualities of their own character. This is an illusion. They are not developing through the force of their own qualities. In the last war against Russia they conquered with the help of battleships and cannon invented by Europeans; they made use of a foreign civilization. It is only progressive development when a people develops from out its own being. It is on this that development depends.

Spiritual individualities who were still the companions of men in the Atlantean epoch could be understood better by nations who had in a certain way remained stationary, and who represented, in a later epoch, conditions beyond which the people of Europe had developed because of their individual self-consciousness and feeling for freedom. Hence the teaching of these spiritual individualities had to be directed to such people, and we see here the consummation of a great mystery.

We see beings who, when the people of Europe were at an earlier stage of evolution, were fully understood, incarnating and appearing later as teachers in the schools of initiation, and on this account being honoured as Gods.

We see Wotan, who had previously dwelt as an Initiate in a human body and taught in the Mysteries, being able, because he had not descended so deeply, to incarnate in a nation which, in a certain way, was backward, and on this account had preserved a feeling for the nothingness of the physical plane, of its unworthiness as an expression of the Deity, who looked on it as a place of sorrow and pain, and who held that the only real bliss was in leaving it.

This individuality, known as Wotan and who had taught in the Mysteries of the Germanic peoples, is the same who appeared later as the Buddha, and with the same mission.

Buddha, who mediated between our world and the higher worlds, is the same individuality who passed over Europe and is remembered there under the name of Wotan.

We see from this how those people who had preserved certain tendencies and connections with earlier conditions were provided for. Knowing this, the historical fact of the good reception Buddhism received among the Mongolian peoples is comprehensible, and entirely in accordance with the wise guidance of Man.

As humanity had to conquer the physical plane more and more, it was no longer possible, in a later age, for such spiritual beings to incarnate directly in a physical body. It required a mightier spiritual being to do this, One who had been foretold by all the earlier teachers. Even the ancient Egyptians when they spoke of Osiris recalled their connection with the ancient Spirit of the Sun, and said: “The kingdom of Osiris will be established again upon earth.”

1911-11-18-GA130

The loftiest teachers of the successive epochs are the Bodhisattvas who already in the pre-Christian era pointed to Christ in His full reality of being; again in the post-Christian era they point to Him as a Power Who is now united with the Earth. Thus the Bodhisattvas work both before and after Christ's physical life on Earth.

He who was born as the son of a King in India, 550 years before Christ, lived and taught for twenty nine years as a Bodhisattva, and then ascended to the rank of Buddha; thereafter he was never again to appear on the Earth in a body of flesh but from then onwards he worked from the spiritual world.

When this Bodhisattva had become Buddha, he was succeeded by the new Bodhisattva whose mission it is to lead mankind to an understanding of the Christ Impulse. All these things had come to pass before the appearance of Christ on the Earth.

1912-05-29-GA155

for longer extract, see: Colchis Mysteries#1912-05-29-GA155

Connected with this development of the Bodhisattva up to Buddha, there was something else of which we must not lose sight, namely, the fact that the individuality which had passed through many incarnations as Bodhisattva and then risen to the rank of Buddha, when it became Buddha had to dwell for the last time in a physical body on Earth. Thus he who is raised from Bodhisattva to Buddha enters into an incarnation which for him is the last. From this time onwards, such an individuality only works down from spiritual heights, he still works, but only spiritually. Thus we now have the fact that the individuality of Buddha has only worked down from spiritual heights since the fifth century before Christ.

But, Buddhism continued. It was able to influence in a certain way not only Asiatic life, but the spiritual life of the whole of the then known world. You know how Buddhism spread in Asia. You know how great is the number of its followers there.

But in a more hidden and veiled form it also spread into the mental life of Europe; and we have particularly to point out that the portion of the great teaching of Buddha relating to the equality of Man was especially acceptable to the population of Europe, because this population was not arranged on the plan of caste divisions, but rather upon the idea of the equality of all human beings.

On the shores of the Black Sea there existed an occult school which lasted far into the Christian era.

This school was guided by certain human beings who set themselves as their highest ideal that part of the teaching of Buddha which we have just described, and through their having taken into themselves the Christian impulse along with it, were able in the early centuries of Christianity to throw new light upon what Buddha had given to humanity. If I were to describe to you this occult school on the Black Seas as the occultist or spiritual investigator sees it — and you will understand me best if I do this — I must do it in the following manner:

People, who to begin with had external teachers in the physical world, came together there. They were instructed in the doctrines and principles which had proceeded from Buddhism, but these were permeated by the impulses which came into the world through Christianity. Then, after the pupils had been sufficiently prepared, they were brought to where the deeper forces lying within them, the deeper forces of wisdom could be brought forth, so that they were led to clairvoyant vision of the spiritual world and were able to see into the spiritual worlds. The first thing attained by the pupils of this occult school, was, for example, the recognition of those who no longer descended to the physical plane. But this they could only do after they had been accustomed to it by the teachers incarnated in the physical body.

In this way they came to know Buddha. Thus, these occult pupils learned to know Buddha face to face, if one may so speak of his spiritual being.

1923-09-10-GA228

for longer extract, see: Druidic and Trotten mysteries#1923-09-10-GA228

[Positioning and Wotan Impulse]

We must imagine the Druid civilization spread out over a great portion of Northern and Central Europe about 3.000 or 3.500 years ago. Men had nothing at all similar to writing. They had only this cosmic writing.

Then into all this there spread from the East, to begin with from a Mystery in the region of the Black Sea, what is now contained as an insoluble riddle for the ordinary consciousness in the Norse Mythology, associated with the name of Wotan.

For what is Wotan?

The Mystery from which this Wotan culture proceeded was a Mercury Mystery, a Mystery that added to the impulses of Sun and Moon the impulse of Mercury. One might say that that old civilization was there in a sun-and Moon-radiant innocence and simplicity, untouched by what could be told to mankind through the Jupiter impulses. Only away in the East these Jupiter impulses were already present.

From thence they now spread, colonizing, towards the West. Wotan-Mercury carried his influence westward.

Here at the same time we have thrown light upon the fact that Wotan is described as the bringer of the Runes, the Runic art of writing. He was the bringer of what Man drew forth from himself in the first primitive way of intellectuality as an art of deciphering the universe. This is the very first entry of intellectualism, the Wotan impulse. Thus one might say that the Mercury, the Wotan-nature, was now added to the Sun-and Moon-natures.

Wherever this Wotan impulse worked itself out fully, everything that was present from earlier experiences was influenced by it. It all received a certain impulse from this Wotan element.

For there was one thing, a special secret of the Druid culture. We know that at all places things arise that do not belong there. Weeds grow on the tilled land. We might say that the Druid culture recognized as the good plants of civilization only the Sun and Moon qualities, and if, hastening forward as it were to a later time, the intellectual element already then arose, they treated it as a weed. Among the many remedies the Druids had, there was one against the Mercury quality of deep thought and introspection. Strange as it may seem to us today, they had a remedy against this habit of sinking into one's inner being, or as we should say, of pondering on one's own salvation. The Druids wanted man to live with Nature and not to sink into himself, and they regarded as sick and ill anyone who even attempted to express anything in signs or the like, unless it were merely to imitate the things of Nature in a primitive form of art. Anyone who made signs was diseased and must be healed. Indeed he was then considered as black human being, he was not white. Yes, my dear friends, if we with all our present knowledge were transposed into the Druid culture, we should all be sent to a hospital and cured.

And now from the East the Wotan civilization brought this very illness. The Wotan civilization indeed was felt as an illness. But it also brought, with a power grown truly great and gigantic, what had formerly appeared as an abnormality, an unhealthy introspection. Into the midst of what had formerly been taken only from the cosmic writing, it brought the Rune. So that Man now transferred his intellectual element into the signs he made. It brought in all that was felt as a Mercury culture. Thus it was no wonder that what proceeded from the Wotan culture, distilled from the best forces that were in it, viz., the Baldur-Being, the Sun-Being, was felt and thought of as one united not with life, but with death. Baldur had to go to Hel, into the dark forces of Death, the dwelling-place of Death.

Moreover, to begin with, men pondered most, as we can see from the traditions of the Edda, not on the question of how this Baldur, son of the Wotan forces, should be freed from Hel (for this is really a later conception) but on the question of how he should be healed. And at length they said: We have many means of healing, but Baldur, the intelligence proceeding from the Runes of Wotan — for this there are no remedies, and it can only lead to death.

Thus we see once more what I have pointed out to you from so many points of view in the study of human evolution. In olden times the instinctive knowledge of mankind knew nothing of the significance of death, for men remembered the pre-earthly life and knew that death is only a transformation. They did not feel death as any deeper incision than this. Above all there was no such thing as the tragedy of death. This only entered in when the Mystery of Golgotha approached, which became indeed a redemption from the fear of death. In the Baldur legend you see the most visible description of how, with the entry of intellectualism, there comes that mood of soul which reckons with deaths, and you see what thus entered into human evolution.

Thus what had been seen in the death of Baldur, who could not rise again, was only healed once more in the way of soul and spirit, when the Christ-figure who could rise from death was placed over against him.

It is wonderful how in the North, through the influence of the Mercury-forces on the Sun-and Moon-forces, the perception of the Christ-impulse was prepared. In Baldur, the God who falls into death and cannot rise again, we see the forerunner, in the North, of Christ, who also falls a victim to death, but who can rise, because He comes directly from the Sun. Baldur, on the other hand, the Sun-force coming from Wotan, is the Sun-force reflected back by Mercury, radiating forth from the signs which man makes out of his intellect.

Discussion

Related pages

References and further reading

Runes

see 1923-09-10-GA228 positioning rune script as part of the Wotan impulse

  • Guido von List (1848-1919)
    • Das Geheimnis der Runen (1908)
      • from wikipedia page on Armanen runes
        • Von List claimed the pseudo-runes were revealed to him while in an 11-month state of temporary blindness after a cataract operation on both eyes in 1902. This vision in 1902 allegedly opened what List referred to as his "inner eye", via which the "Secret of the Runes" was revealed to him. List stated that his Armanen Futharkh were encrypted in the Rúnatal of the Poetic Edda (stanzas 138 to 165 of the Hávamál), with stanzas 147 through 165, where Odin enumerates eighteen wisdoms (with 164 being an interpolation), interpreted as being the "song of the 18 runes". List and many of his followers believed his runes to represent the "primal runes" upon which all historical rune rows were based.
  • Siegfried Adolf Kummer (1899-1977)
    • Heilige Runenmacht (1932)
    • Runen-Magie (1933)
    • Runen – Raunen
  • Karl Spiesberger (1904-1992)
    • Runenmagie Handbuch der Runenkunde (1955, 1968)
    • Runenexerzitien für Jedermann (1958)
  • Sigurd Agrell: Die Herkunft der Runenschrift (1938)
websites